Rabu, 10 April 2013

Example Of Proposal Classroom Action Research



DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH TALKING STICK MODEL AT CLASS 11 OF TATA BUSANA DEPARTEMENT
SMK DAERAH KOTAMOBAGU

I.                 INTRODUCTION
A.   BASIC CONSIDERATION
Speaking is one of four language skills whether in English or another language.  The four of language skills are speaking, reading, listening and writing which have close relationship among one to the others. Berbicara adalah  kemampuan mengucapkan bunyi-bunyi artikulasi atau kata-kata untuk mengeekspresikan, menyatakan serta menyampaikan pikiran, gagasan dan perasaan (http://makalahdan skripsi.blogspot.com). Means that speaking is an activity to express filling and idea orally. Speaking in English is very important to communicate in this globalization era, because the world society agreed that English is international language. There are some examples of speaking activities, they are dialogue, interview, speech etc.
In teaching and learning process commonly the learner have problem from their self who shy in making mistakes to express their idea or sentences. But actually in learning, every student must speak. It’s started from try it then practice continuously without feeling afraid or enjoy.  Every mistake can correct and we can learn from those mistakes to develop our speaking English. As the statement “practice makes perfect”.
The purpose of students’ learn is the student must be able to express words, express an idea, practice dialogue, interview, telling story, telling argument, and present their Prakerin report in English. It is based on the curriculum of KTSP. It is also makes student adaptation in their job later. But in fact, the students who stand in class 11 of SMK Daerah kotamobagu, especially Tata Busana Department is not as expected. It caused by the straight model of teaching and learning. Therefore, as a teacher anticipate it by using new tricks which necessary to develop their speaking ability. One of tricks is apply interesting model of teaching and learning.
The model of teaching and learning is very important, because it is teaching and learning activities from beginning to end. Based on Sudrajat (2008: www. Psb-psma.org) stated that model pembelajaran pada dasarnya merupakan bentuk pembelajaran yang tergambar dari awal sampai akhir yang disajikan secara khas oleh guru. In another word, it is a wrapper or frame the application of metode and technique of teaching and learning. One of interesting model of teaching is talking stick model. The writer thought that talking stick model can develop students’ speaking ability, because it gives chance to the student to learn and also play.
Based on the background above, the writer gives the title of this study “DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY THROUGH TALKING STICK MODEL AT CLASS 11 OF TATA BUSANA DEPARTMENT SMK DAERAH KOTAMOBAGU














B.   PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Based on the basic consideration above, I reflected about my teaching and learning I found some cases in my class.
1.         The students have very little vocabulary
2.         Based on the background of the student, their English ability is very low
3.         The student afraid to make mistake
4.         The student want to speak if invite by the teacher
5.         The methodology which I applied before is interesting

C.   PROBLEM FORMULATION
Based on the background and identification above, so  I formulate my problem:
Can talking stick model develop students’ speaking ability?

D.   PROBLEM SOLVING
Using Talking stick model in class and hopefully it can develop students’ speaking ability

E.   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1.      The purpose of the study is to develop students’ speaking ability through talking stick model.



F.    THE CONSTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY
The contributions of this study are:
1.      The students’ speaking ability are develop
2.      The teacher can develop students’ speaking ability

II.               REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
I.                  THE THEORY OF STUDY, TEACHING AND LEARNING, SPEAKING AND MODEL
1.     The theory of Study
Study is an active activity and process of gain knowledge and experience. It is support by the theory of J. Bruner in surianta (http://disdikklungkung.net) belajar merupakan suatu proses aktif yang memungkinkan manusia untuk menemukan hal-hal baru diluar informasi yang diberikan kepada dirinya.  To get the knowledge the people need to study in level by level. It means that to internalize the knowledge in the brain (cognitive structure). Based on the theory of J. Bruner in surianta (http://disdikklungkung.net):
Proses internalisasi akan terjadi secara sungguh-sungguh(yang berarti proses belajar mengajar terjadi secara optimal) jika pengetahuan itu dipelajari dalam tahap- tahap sebagai berikut:
a)      Tahap enaktif adalah suatu tahap pembelajaran dimana pengetahuan dipelajari secara aktif dengan menggunakan benda-benda konkret atau situasi nyata.
b)      Tahap ikonik adalah suatu tahap pembelajaran dimana pengetahuan dipresentasikan (diwujudkan) dalam bentuk bayangan visual (visual imagery), ambar atau diagram yang menggambarkan kegiatan konkret yang terdapat pada tahap enaktif.
c)      Tahap simbolik adalah suatu tahap pembelajaran dimana pengetahuan itu direpresentasikan dalan bentuk simbol-simbol abstrak, baik simbol-simbol verbal 9misalkan huruf-huruf, kata-kata atau kalimat-kalimat), dan lambang-lambang abstrak lainya.


2.     The theory of teaching and learning
Suyitno,2004:1 dalam surianta: http://dislngkng.net) Pembelajaran adalah upaya untuk menciptakan dan pelayanan terhadap kemampuan potensi, minat, bakat dan kebutuhan peserta didik yang beragam agar terjadi interaksi optimal antara guru dengan dengan peserta didik atau antara peserta didik dengan peserta didik lainya.
3.     The meaning of Speaking
Speaking is an activity to express idea and feeling between listener and speaker. Berbicara adalah Suatu alat untuk mengkomunikasikan gagasan-gagasan yang disusun serta dikembangkan sesuai dengan kebutuhan sang pendengar atau penyimak (http://makalahdanskripsi.blogspot.com)
4.     The Elements of Speaking
The elements of speaking is speaker, idea, listener, media and response. According to the paper in (http://makalahdanskripsi.blogspot.com) didalam berbicara terdapat lima unsur yang terlibat yaitu:
1.      Pembicara
2.      Isi pembicaraan
3.      Saluran
4.      Penyimak
5.      Tanggapan penyimak

5.     Model Of The Teaching and Learning
Sudrajat (2008: http://www.Psb-psma.org) stated that  model pembelajaran pada dasarnya merupakan bentuk pembelajaran yang tergambar dari awal sampai akhir yang disajikan secara khas oleh guru. Dengan kata lain, model pembelajaran merupakan bungkus atau bingkai dari suatu penerapan metode dan teknik pembelajaran.

Based on Rampengan (2008: 19) Model pembelajaran talking stick
Steps:
1.      Guru menyiapkan sebuah tongkat
2.      Guru menyampaikan materi pokok yang akan di pelajari kemudian memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk membaca dan mempelajari materi.
3.      Setelah selesai membaca materi/buku pelajaran dan mempelajarinya, siswa menutup bukunya.
4.      Guru mengambil tongkat dan memberikan kepada siswa, setelah itu gru memberikan pertanyaan dan siswa yang memegang tongkat tongkat tersebut harus menjawabnya, demikian seterusnya sampai sebagian besar siswa mendapat bagian untuk menjawab setiap pertanyaan dari guru.
5.      Guru memberikan kesimpulan
6.      Evaluasi
7.      Penutup

II.               PROBLEM DESIGN
Based on the case above, it needs design to apply  talking Stick model in teaching and learning.
Hopefully talking stick model can develop students’ speaking ability.

III.           HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
Talking stick can develop students’ speaking ability.





III.           PLAN & PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY (METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY)
 A. PLAN THE STUDY
            There are  pGHHlace of the research, time of research, plan of action research  and the cycle of the research.
1. Place of the study
            This classroom research will held at SMK Daerah Kotamobagu class XI for English subject.
2. The time of the study
This research will be held in even term 2011/2012 academic year. It’s from July to December. The time of the research based on the school academic calendar and semester gram calendar, because classroom action research need the cycle which need in teaching and learning process.
3. Plan Of Action study
a. The writer will use standard competence (KD) 2.4 . telling about past event and future plan in 5 meetings.
b.  The writer will make an instrument for pre-test and post test, also observation instruments of teaching and learning by using talking stick models.
4. The subject of the study
The subject of the research is class XI of Tata Busana department at SMK Daerah Kotamobagu which the total of the students 20 people.
5. Data resources
The data resources are students, teacher, another English teacher and colaborator.
a. Student
The function of student is to get the data from their result of study


b.      Teacher
The function of teacher here is to research how far the success of talking stick implementation based on the students’ result.
3. Another English teacher and collaborator
The functions of Another English teacher and colaborator are to see how far the success of talking sticks implementation based on their observations.
6. Technique and instrument of the study
a.  Technique
The technique of collecting the data are test, observasion, interview and discussion.
a.1. Test: to get students’ result
a.2. Observasion: to observe how far the implementation of talking stick
a.3. Interview: to get short information and data of talking stick implementation
a.4. Discussion among teacher, another English teacher, and collaborator to reflection about the classroom action research
b. Instruments of the study
             The instruments of the research are test, observasion, interview, quetioner and discussion.
7. Work indicators
            The indicator of this classroom research is not only students’ ability, but also the teacher because teacher is students’ facilitators who influences to students’ ability.
a. Student
a.1. Test: the average of student daily test
a.2. Observasion: the ability og the student
b. Teacher
b.1. Documentasion: students’ attendance, video of research
b.2. Observasion: observation result
8.  Analisis Data
            The data will collect in every cycles of the research and analize descriptively, with the purpose to know what happen in teaching and learning activities. You can see the aspects bellow:
a. Result of study : the way is write the class’ average. Then, the writer categorize it into high, midle, and low
b. Student’s ability in the process of english teaching and learning by dengan menganalisis  analyzing the level of students’ speaking english ability. Then, the writer categorize it into high, midle, and low
 c. Implementation of  talking stick model. The main pint is to analize the level of talking stick success in chategorize; succsess, less success and unsuccess.

B. PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY
1. Classroom Action Research Cycle
             The writer plans this classroom action research into two cycles by implementing talking stick model to develop students’ speaking ability. It will implement in 6 months, 5 x 90 minutes.
The steps of this research are planning, acting, observing and reflecting. Lool the explanation bellow:

Cycle 1
            1. Planing
a. The writer make discussion with another english teacher about the models of teaching and learning which done before and caused students’ speaking ability low.
b.The team  analize the curiculum. This purpose is to know which cucciculum will apply in talking stick implementation.
c.  Prepare the questioner
d. Prepare the stick
e. write a lesson plan
f. make an  instrument of  pre-test and post - test
2. Acting
a.                    Brain storming give key words
b.                   The teacher prepare the stick
c.                       The teacher explains the materials, then give a chance to the students to learn and read the materials.
d.                     The student closed their book.
e.                       The teacher takes a stick and give to ones  student. The student must answer the question of the teacher. It continue until all of student had chance to answer  the question
f.                      Student and teacher make a conclution of the materials.
g.                      Evaluation
h.                     Ask to the student to fill the questioner
i.                       Closing

3. Observing
a.                    The situation of teaching and learning.
b.                  Students’ ability.

4. Reflecting
    This research is success if  :
a). More than 75 % of the student can answer the question from the teacher
b). More than  80 % of the students can speak english






Cycle  2
            The activities are same with the the activities in thefirst cycle, but the researcher make a little modification in acting.
1. Planing
      Tim peneliti membuat rencana pembelajaran berdasarkan hasil refleksi pada siklus pertama
2. Acting
2.1.Brain storming give key words
2.2. The teacher prepare the stick
2.3. The teacher explains the materials, and then gives a chance to the students to learn and read the materials.
2.4. The student closed their book.
2.5. The teacher takes a stick and gives to ones student. The student must tell something one sentence or more by their own sentence based on the picture. Every student who has finished he/she gives it to ones of their friend which choose by their self. It continue until all of student had chance tell their idea.
2.6. Student and teacher make a conclution of the materials.
Evaluation
2.7. Ask to the student to fill the questioner
2.8. Closing

      3. Observing
a.       The situation of teaching and learning.
b.      Students’ ability.

4. Reflecting
This research is success if  :
a)            More than 75 % of the student can answer the question from the teacher
b)      More than  80 % of the students can speak english



DESIGN OF CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH
STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY LOW
PLANNING
 
                                                The Proposal
CYCLE I
IMPLEMENTING TALKING STICK MODEL
ACTING
 



CYCLE II
IMPLEMENTING TALKING STICK MODEL

REFLECTING
                                         


OBSERVING
                                 
REFLECTING
 
                                                             
STUDENTS’ SPEKING ABILITY
IMPROVE
The report of Study                                                              




IV.           The details of classroom action research cost.
No
Activities
Volume
Total( Rp )
expl.
I
Planning
1.        Make the proposal of research
2.        Write the lesson plan
3.        Prepare the stick and all instruments
4.        Prepare tools of documentation


1 times
5 times

1 times





500.000,00,-
60.000,00,-

500.000,00,-

1.000.000,00,-



          total  I

1.560.000,00,-

II
Acting
1.        The salary for researcher
2.        The salary for observer

5 times
3 times

600.000,00,-
150.000,00,-


          total    II

750.000,00,-

III
Analyzing the data

3 times

1.000.000,00,-


      total    III

1.000.000,00,-

IV
write the report of research

6 eks
250.000,00,-


      total    IV

250.000,-00,-


     total

4.150.000,00,-











V.               SCHEDULE OF CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

No

Activity
Action Plan
July 11
August 11
September 11
October 11
November 11
December 11
1
Write the proposal of classroom action research
XX





2
Write the lesson plan
     XX





3
Prepare the stick and instruments of research

XX




4
Prepare tools of documentation (camera & video)

X




5
Activity in cycle I
·         panning
·         acting
·         Observings
·         reflecting


   X
  XX 
XX






X



6
Activity in cycle II
·         Planning
·         acting
·         Observing
·         Reflecting

XXX



XXX
XXX






X


7
write the research report




XX

8
Seminar & publish the  research





X



VI.           Resercher

1.      The leader of research :
a.       Full name & degree                 : Sussilowati, S.Pd
b.      sex                                           : Female
c.       Pangkat/Gol/NIP                    : Penata muda Tkt I/III.a/9560 027 947
d.      Positition                                 : Teacher
e.       instantion                                : SMK Daerah Kotamobagu
f.       Departement                           : english

2.      Vice leader of the research :
a.       Full name & degree           : Dra. N.dg. pawewang
b.      sex                                     : Female
c.       Pangkat/Gol/NIP              :
d.      Position                             : Teacher
e.       Institution                         : SMK Daerah Gorontalo
f.       Departement                      : English






BIBLIOGRAPY

Rampengan,M.J, (2008), Diklat Sertifikasi Guru, Manado:Modul
Sudrajat, Ahmad, (2008), Pengertian Pendekatan, Strategi, Metode, Teknik, Taktik Dan Model Pembelajaran, http://www.psb-posma.org/content/blog/pengertian-pendekatan-strategi-metode-teknik-taktik-danmodel-pembelajaran
Surianta, I Made,..........Penerapan Model pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe STAD Dengan Media VCD, http://disdiklungkung..net/content/view/73/461
           


















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